Whereas of ATEX 94/9/CE directive


Having regard to the Treaty establishing the European Community, and in particular Article 100a thereof,

Having regard to the proposal from the Commission (1),

Having regard to the opinion of the Economic and Social Committee (2),

Acting in accordance with the procedure referred to in Article 189b of the Treaty establishing the European Community,

Whereas it is the duty of Member States to protect, on their territory, the safety and health of persons and, where appropriate, domestic animals and property and, in particular, that of workers, especially against the hazards resulting from the use of equipment and systems providing protection against potentially explosive atmospheres;

Commentaire :

Deux types de directives existent :

  • Celles relatives à la conception fabrication et mise sur le marché des produits. Ces directives fixent un niveau de sécurité qui représente le niveau permettant la libre circulation des produits au sein de l’Union Européenne. Les Etats membres ne peuvent pas fixer d’exigences complémentaires, car ces exigences seraient de nature à entraver les échanges à l'intérieur de l’Union Européenne.
  • Celles relatives à l’utilisation des produits. Pour ce qui est relatif à l’utilisation des produits les Etats sont libres de fixer le niveau de sécurité qu’ils désirent.

Dans le cadre de l’ATEX, la conception fabrication et mise sur le marché des produits est couverte par la directive 94/9/CE. Celle relative à l’utilisation des produits est couverte par la directive 99/92/CE.

Whereas mandatory provisions within the Member States determine the level of safety to be achieved by protective equipment and systems intended for use in potentially explosive atmospheres; whereas these are generally electrical and non-electrical specifications having an effect on the design and structure of equipment which can be used in potentially explosive atmospheres;

Commentaire :

Le préambule définit le cadre des appareils couverts : aspects électriques et non électriques.

Whereas the requirements to be met by such equipment differ from one Member State to another in respect of their extent and differing inspection procedures; whereas these differences are, therefore, likely to raise barriers to trade within the Community;

Whereas harmonization of national legislation is the only way in which to remove these barriers to free trade; whereas this objective cannot be satisfactorily achieved by the individual Member States; whereas this Directive merely lays down the requirements vital to freedom of movement for the equipment to which it applies;

Commentaire :

Le préambule définit que la circulation des produits au sein de l’Union Européenne (U.E.) nécessite une harmonisation des législations nationales.

Whereas the regulations intended to remove technical barriers to trade are required to follow the new approach provided for in the Council resolution of 7 May 1985 (3), which requires a definition of the essential requirements regarding safety and other requirements of society without reducing existing, justified levels of protection within the Member States; whereas that resolution provides that a very large number of products be covered by a single Directive in order to avoid frequent amendments and the proliferation of Directives;

Commentaire :

La nouvelle approche prévue dans la résolution du Conseil du 7 mai 1985. ***

Whereas the existing Directives on the approximation of the laws of the Member States to electrical equipment for use in potentially explosive atmospheres have made positive steps towards protection against explosions via measures linked with the structure of the equipment at issue and which have helped to remove barriers to trade in this area; whereas, in parallel, a revision and expansion of the existing Directives is necessary since, more particularly, in an overall context, action must be taken to guard against the potential hazards arising from such equipment. This implies in particular that measures intended to guarantee effective protection of users and third parties must already be contemplated at the design and manufacturing states;

Whereas the form taken by the hazard, the protective measures and the test methods are often very similar, if not identical, for both mining and surface equipment; whereas it is, therefore, absolutely necessary to cover by a single Directive protective equipment and systems falling within both groups;

Whereas the two groups of equipment referred to above are used in a large number of commercial and industrial sectors and possess considerable economic significance;

Whereas compliance with the basic safety and health requirements is essential in order to ensure the safety of protective equipment and systems; whereas those requirements have been subdivided into general and additional requirements which must be met by protective equipment and systems; whereas, in particular, the additional requirements are intended to take account of existing or potential hazards; whereas protective equipment and systems will, therefore, embody at least one of those requirements where this is necessary for their proper functioning or is to apply to their intended use; whereas the notion of intended use is of prime importance for the explosion-proofing of protective equipment and systems; whereas it is essential that manufacturers supply full information; whereas specific, clear marking of said equipment, stating its use in a potentially explosive atmosphere, is also necessary;

Whereas the intention is to prepare a Directive on operations in potentially explosive atmospheres which is based on Article 118a; whereas that additional Directive will, in particular, aim at explosion hazards which derive from a given use and/or types and methods of installation;

Whereas compliance with essential health and safety requirements is imperative if the safety of equipment is to be ensured; whereas judgment will have to be exercised in the implementation of those requirements in order to take account of both the technology obtaining at the time of manufacture and overriding technical and economic requirements;

Commentaire :

Il s’agit de la directive 99/92/CE

Whereas, therefore, this Directive sets out essential requirements only; whereas, in order to facilitate the task of proving compliance with the essential requirements, harmonized European standards are necessary, more especially with regard to the non-electrical aspects of protection against explosions - standards relating to the design, manufacture and testing of equipment, compliance with which enables a product to be presumed to meet such essential requirements; whereas harmonized European standards are drawn up by private bodies and must retain their non-mandatory status; whereas, for this purpose, the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) and the European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (Cenelec) are recognized as the bodies competent to adopt harmonized standards which follow the general guidelines for cooperation between the Commission and those two bodies, signed on 13 November 1984; whereas, for the purposes of this Directive, a harmonized standard is a technical specification (European Standard or harmonization document) adopted by one or other of those bodies, or by both, at the prompting of the Commission pursuant to Council Directive 83/189/EEC of the 28 March 1983 providing for a procedure governing the provision of information on technical standards and regulations (1) and pursuant to the general guidelines referred to above;

Commentaire :

Définition de la norme harmonisée et des deux Comités européens en charge de l’harmonisation et des orientations normatives.

Whereas the legislative framework should be improved in order to ensure that employers and workers make an effective and appropriate contribution towards the standardization process; whereas this should be completed by the time this Directive is implemented;

Whereas, in view of the nature of the risks involved in the use of equipment in potentially explosive atmospheres it is necessary to establish procedures applying to the assessment of compliance with the basic requirements of the Directives; whereas these procedures must be devised in the light of the level of risk which may be inherent in equipment and/or against which systems must protect the immediate environment; whereas, therefore, each category of equipment conformity must be supplemented by an adequate procedure or a choice between several equivalent procedures; whereas the procedures adopted comply fully with Council Decision 93/465/EEC of 22 July 1993 concerning the modules for the various phases of the conformity assessment procedures which are intended to be used in the technical harmonization Directives (2);

Whereas the Council has provided for the affixing of the CE marking by either the manufacturer or his authorized representative within the Community; whereas that marking means that the product complies with all the basic requirements and assessment procedures provided for by the Community law applying to that product;

Whereas it is appropriate that the Member States, as provided for by Article 100a of the Treaty, may take temporary measures to limit or prohibit the placing on the market and the use of equipment and protective systems in cases where they present a particular risk to the safety of persons and, where appropriate, domestic animals or property, provided that the measures are subject to a Community control procedure;

Whereas the recipients of any decision taken as part of this Directive must be aware of the reasons behind that decision and the means of appeal open to them;

Whereas, on 18 December 1985, the Council adopted a framework Directive on electrical equipment for use in potentially explosive atmospheres (76/117/EEC) (3) and, on 15 February 1982, a Directive concerning electrical equipment for use in potentially explosive atmospheres in mines susceptible to fire damp (82/130/EEC) (4); whereas, from the outset of harmonization work, the conversion into total harmonization of the optional and partial harmonization on which these Directives are based had been contemplated; whereas this Directive fully covers the scope of the abovementioned Directives and whereas, therefore, these Directives must be repealed;

Whereas the internal market incorporates an area without internal frontiers within which the free movement of goods, persons, services and capital is assured;

Whereas it is necessary to provide for a transitional arrangement enabling equipment manufactured in compliance with the national regulations in force at the date of adoption of this Directive to be marketed and placed in service,